1. amazonfeminist:

    The “Night Witches” was the all female Night Bomber Regiment of the Soviet Air Forces that bombed German lines in WWII. They were equipped with the worst, oldest, noisest, crappest planes in the entire world. The engines used to conk out halfaway through missions and they had to climb on the wings mid flight to restart the props. To stop germans from hearing their noisy planes and firing at them, they’d climb up to a certain height, coast down to German positions, drop their bombs, restart their engines in midair, and get out as quickly as possible. Their leader flew over 200 missions and was never captured.

     
  2. fire-in-the-night:

‘The war tuba is a colloquial name sometimes applied to Imperial  Japanese Army acoustic locators due to the visual resemblance to the  musical tuba’
- Wikipedia

    fire-in-the-night:

    ‘The war tuba is a colloquial name sometimes applied to Imperial Japanese Army acoustic locators due to the visual resemblance to the musical tuba’

    - Wikipedia

     
  3. image: Download

    do-not-tumble:



A British Postman on his rounds, London Blitz 1940

    do-not-tumble:

    A British Postman on his rounds, London Blitz 1940

     
  4. collective-history:

    The Disappearance and Mystery of the Amber Room

    The Amber Room was constructed in 1701 in order to be installed at Charlottenburg Palace, home of Friedrich I, the first king of Prussia, at the urging of his second wife, Sophie Charlotte. 

    Although originally intended for installation at Charlottenburg Palace, the complete panels were eventually installed at Berlin City Palace. The Amber Room did not, however, remain at Berlin Castle for long. Peter the Great admired it on a visit and in 1716, Friedrich Wilhelm I, the first king’s son, presented it to him, and with that act cemented a Prussian-Russian alliance against Sweden. 

    On June 22, 1941, Adolf Hitler initiated Operation Barbarossa, which launched three million German soldiers into the Soviet Union. The invasion led to the looting of tens of thousands of art treasures, including the illustrious Amber Room, which the Nazis believed was made by Germans and, most certainly, made for Germans.

    As the forces moved into Pushkin, officials and curators of the Catherine Palace attempted to disassemble and hide the Amber Room. When the dry amber began to crumble, the officials instead tried hiding the room behind thin wallpaper. But the ruse didn’t fool the German soldiers, who tore down the Amber Room within 36 hours, packed it up in 27 crates and shipped it to Königsberg, Germany. The room was reinstalled in Königsberg’s castle museum on the Baltic Coast.

    The Amber Room was never seen in public again, though reports have occasionally surfaced stating that components of the Amber Room survived the war. There have been numerous conflicting reports and theories, among them that the Amber Room was destroyed by bombing, hidden in a now-lost subterranean bunker in Königsberg, buried in mines in the Ore Mountains, or taken onto a ship or submarine which was sunk by Soviet forces in the Baltic Sea.

    Another bizarre aspect of this story is the “Amber Room Curse.” Many people connected to the room have met untimely ends. General Gusev, a Russian intelligence officer, died in a car crash after he talked to a journalist about the Amber Room. Another example is Georg Stein, Amber Room hunter and former German soldier, who in 1987 was murdered in a Bavarian forest.

    Either way, many different individuals and groups, including a number of different entities from the government of the Soviet Union, have mounted extensive searches for it at various times since the war, without any success, and thus, the mystery remains. 

     
  5. collective-history:

    Anti-Japanese political cartoons by Dr. Seuss

    The Japanese are portrayed in these political cartoons by Dr. Seuss as having characteristics of a pig-nose, glasses, slanted eyes, etc. The repetition of these characteristics on all people of Japanese descent in Dr. Seuss’s cartoons fueled the loss of the individuality of the Japanese people.

    Even though the idea of classifying the Japanese as non-distinguishable members of a group did not stem from Dr. Seuss’s cartoons, Dr. Seuss did exacerbate the dehumanization of Japanese through his political cartoons. He spread the racism already present against the Japanese in his illustrations, while he also attempted to raise awareness and stop the prejudice against the Jewish people and black racism. 

    By allowing the “characteristics” of the Japanese to extend to ones also seen in Japanese-Americans, it allowed the hatred and racism to extend from the Japanese to the Japanese-Americans, which helped in rallying American support for the internment of the Japanese. And in fact, one week after Dr. Seuss came out with his anti Japanese-American cartoon (in 1943), President Roosevelt signed the executive order authorizing internment.

    Sources: 1, 2, 3  

     
  6. guerrillafeminism:

During WWII, Irena Sendler, got permission to work in the Warsaw ghetto, as a Plumbing/Sewer specialist. She had an ulterior motive.
Irena smuggled Jewish infants out in the bottom of the tool box she carried. She also carried a burlap sack in the back of her truck, for larger kids.
Irena kept a dog in the back that she trained to bark when the Nazi soldiers let her in and out of the ghetto.
The soldiers, of course, wanted nothing to do with the dog and the barking covered the kids/infants noises.



During her time of doing this, she managed to smuggle out and save 2500 kids/infants.
Ultimately, she was caught, however, and the Nazi’s broke both of her legs and arms and beat her severely.
Irena kept a record of the names of all the kids she had smuggled out, in a glass jar that she buried under a tree in her back yard.
After the war, she tried to locate any parents that may have survived and tried to reunite the families.
Most had been gassed. Those kids she helped got placed into foster family homes or adopted.
In 2007 Irena was up for the Nobel Peace Prize. She was not selected. Al Gore won, for a slide show on Global Warming. 

Later another politician, Barack Obama, won for his work as a community organizer for ACORN.
In MEMORIAL - 65 YEARS LATER

    guerrillafeminism:

    During WWII, Irena Sendler, got permission to work in the Warsaw ghetto, as a Plumbing/Sewer specialist. She had an ulterior motive.

    Irena smuggled Jewish infants out in the bottom of the tool box she carried. She also carried a burlap sack in the back of her truck, for larger kids.

    Irena kept a dog in the back that she trained to bark when the Nazi soldiers let her in and out of the ghetto.

    The soldiers, of course, wanted nothing to do with the dog and the barking covered the kids/infants noises.

    During her time of doing this, she managed to smuggle out and save 2500 kids/infants.

    Ultimately, she was caught, however, and the Nazi’s broke both of her legs and arms and beat her severely.

    Irena kept a record of the names of all the kids she had smuggled out, in a glass jar that she buried under a tree in her back yard.

    After the war, she tried to locate any parents that may have survived and tried to reunite the families.

    Most had been gassed. Those kids she helped got placed into foster family homes or adopted.

    In 2007 Irena was up for the Nobel Peace Prize. She was not selected. Al Gore won, for a slide show on Global Warming. 

    Later another politician, Barack Obama, won for his work as a community organizer for ACORN.


    In MEMORIAL - 65 YEARS LATER
     
  7. image: Download

    usnatarchives:

As we prepare for Veterans Day, we were saddened to hear of the passing of Lt. Col. Herbert Carter, one of the last surviving members of the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II.
Here are some of the Tuskegee Airmen in 1944. If any one can identify more of the men in the picture, please let us know in the comments below.
“Members of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the Army Air Forces, famous all-Negro outfit, who are rapidly making themselves feared by enemy pilots, pose for a picture at the Anzio beachhead. In the foreground, head bared, is 1st Lt. Andrew Lane.”, ca. 02/1944
(Thank you to the Foundation for the National Archives for finding this photograph in our records.)

    usnatarchives:

    As we prepare for Veterans Day, we were saddened to hear of the passing of Lt. Col. Herbert Carter, one of the last surviving members of the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II.

    Here are some of the Tuskegee Airmen in 1944. If any one can identify more of the men in the picture, please let us know in the comments below.

    “Members of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the Army Air Forces, famous all-Negro outfit, who are rapidly making themselves feared by enemy pilots, pose for a picture at the Anzio beachhead. In the foreground, head bared, is 1st Lt. Andrew Lane.”, ca. 02/1944

    (Thank you to the Foundation for the National Archives for finding this photograph in our records.)

     
  8. Image of Sgt William Furia of Philadelphia wearing a lacy helmet cover. December, 1944, Battle of the Bulge
(source: The Windsor Daily Star - Feb 9, 1945)

    Image of Sgt William Furia of Philadelphia wearing a lacy helmet cover. December, 1944, Battle of the Bulge

    (source: The Windsor Daily Star - Feb 9, 1945)

     
  9. auauk:

    Japanese-American Internment (the result of Executive Order 9066.)

     
  10. 15:22 25th Oct 2011

    Notes: 990

    Reblogged from msenjoli

    Tags: raceracismhistorygermanywwii

    whb2:

    The fate of blacks in Nazi Germany

    *Peace to the Blacks, Jews, Gypsies and Gays who were murdered in Nazi Concentration Camps. And blessings to the kind german citizens who helped hide and protect them.

    So much of our history is lost to us because we often don’t write the history books, don’t film the documentaries, or don’t pass the accounts down from generation to generation.

    One documentary now touring the film festival circuit, telling us to ”Always Remember” is “Black Survivors of the Holocaust” (1997). Outside the U.S., the film is entitled “Hitler’s Forgotten Victims” (Afro-Wisdom Productions) . It codifies another dimension to the “Never Forget “Holocaust story—our dimension.

    Did you know that in the 1920’s, there were 24,000 Blacks living in Germany? Here’s how it happened, and how many of them were eventually caught unawares by the events of the Holocaust.

    Like most West European nations, Germany established colonies in Africa in the late 1800’s in what later became Togo, Cameroon, Namibia, and Tanzania. German genetic experiments began there, most notably involving prisoners taken from the 1904 Heroro Massacre that left 60,000 Africans dead, following a 4-year revolt against German colonization.

    After the shellacking Germany received in World War I, it was stripped of its African colonies in 1918.

    As a spoil of war, the French were allowed to occupy Germany in the Rhineland—a bitter piece of real estate that has gone back and, forth between the two nations for centuries. The French willfully deployed their own colonized African soldiers as the occupying force.

    Germans viewed this as the final insult of World War I, and, soon thereafter, 92% of them voted in the Nazi party.Hundreds of the African Rhineland-based soldiers intermarried with German women and raised their children as Black Germans. In Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote about his plans for these “Rhineland Bastards”. When he came to power, one of his first directives was aimed at these mixed-race children. Underscoring Hitler’s obsession with racial purity, by 1937, every identified mixed-race child in the Rhineland had been forcibly sterilized, in order to prevent further “race polluting”, as Hitler termed it.

    Hans Hauck, a Black Holocaust survivor and a victim of Hitler’s mandatory sterilization program, explained in the film “Hitler’s Forgotten Victims” that, when he was forced to undergo sterilization as a teenager, he was given no anesthetic. Once he received his sterilization certificate, he was “free to go”, so long as he agreed to have no sexual relations whatsoever with Germans. Although most Black Germans attempted to escape their fatherland, heading for France where people like Josephine Baker were steadily aiding and supporting the French Underground, many still encountered problems elsewhere. Nations shut their doors to Germans, including the Black ones.

    Some Black Germans were able to eke out a living during Hitler’s reign of terror by performing in Vaudeville shows, but many Blacks, steadfast in their belief that they were German first, Black second, opted to remain in Germany. Some fought with the Nazis (a few even became Lutwaffe pilots)! Unfortunately, many Black Germans were arrested, charged with treason, and shipped in cattle cars to concentration camps. Often these trains were so packed with people and (equipped with no bathroom facilities or food), that, after the four-day journey, box car doors were opened to piles of the dead and dying.

    Once inside the concentration camps, Blacks were given the worst jobs conceivable. Some Black American soldiers, who were captured and held as prisoners of war, recounted that, while they were being starved and forced into dangerous labor (violating the Geneva Convention), they were still better off than Black German concentration camp detainees, who were forced to do the unthinkable-man the crematoriums and work in labs where genetic experiments were being conducted. As a final sacrifice, these Blacks were killed every three months so that they would never be able to reveal the inner workings of the “Final Solution”. In every story of Black oppression, no matter how we were enslaved, shackled, or beaten, we always found a way to survive and to rescue others.

    As a case in point, consider Johnny Voste, a Belgian resistance fighter who
    was arrested in 1942 for alleged sabotage and then shipped to Dachau. One of his jobs was stacking vitamin crates.Risking his own life, he distributed hundreds of vitamins to camp detainees, which saved the lives of many who were starving, weak, and ill—conditions exacerbated by extreme vitamin deficiencies. His motto was ”No, you can’t have my life; I will fight for it.”

    According to Essex University’s Delroy Constantine- Simms, there were Black Germans who resisted Nazi Germany, such as Lari Gilges, who founded the Northwest Rann—an organization of entertainers that fought the Nazis in his home town of Dusseldorf—and who was murdered by the SS in 1933, the year that Hitler came into power.

    Little information remains about the numbers of Black Germans held in the camps or killed under the Nazi regime. Some victims of the Nazi sterilization project and Black survivors of the Holocaust are still alive and telling their story in films such as “Black Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust”, but they must also speak out for justice, not just history. Unlike Jews (in Israel and in Germany), Black Germans receive no war reparations because their German citizenship was revoked (even though they were German-born) . The only pension they get is from those of us who are willing to tell the world their stories and continue their battle for recognition and compensation.

    After the war, scores of Blacks who had somehow managed to survive the Nazi regime, were rounded up and tried as war criminals. Talk about the final insult! There are thousands of Black Holocaust stories, from the triangle trade, to slavery in America, to the gas ovens in Germany.

    We often shy away from hearing about our historical past because so much of it is painful; however, we are in this struggle together for rights, dignity, and, yes, reparations for wrongs done to us through the centuries. We need to always remember so that we can take steps to ensure that these atrocities never happen again.

    Written by A. Tolbert, III

     
  11. fuckyeahbookarts:

The History of Keep Calm and Carry On

    fuckyeahbookarts:

    The History of Keep Calm and Carry On

    (Source: euliss)

     
  12. liquornspice:

    downlo:

    (Inspired by the commentary on this post)

    For the purposes of anti-racism struggles, that’s all you need to go by.

    Yes, the term, “colored” is not normally associated with Asian people these days, but it was definitely used to label people of Asian descent in this country in the…

    Here’s another one of those one-way calls for solidarity.  “If you don’t legitimize my identity and include me in your organizing then you’re stupid.”  No mention of Asians needing to eliminate anti-Black or non-Asian POC racism BEFORE being in solidarity with these communities. Or that racism and white supremacy operate differently for Blacks and non-Blacks and we all have to understand those intricacies before organizing with each other.  Just, include us or you’re stupid.  The fact that I am always Black and never “Other” means something.  That white supremacy lynched all of us, but recorded me as Negro and you as white means something.  Not that Asians aren’t people of color or victims of white supremacy, but that white supremacy oppresses us in different ways.  If some Asians feel closer to white people because they beat them up less, that seems like a pretty important thing to address before making blanket demands of inclusion.

    It seems that people are missing or deliberately ignoring the context of my post, which was commentary on a particular piece of commentary, not a blanket statement about intra-minority racial relations. My call for solidarity among ALL people of color was just a rhetorical turn from pointing out the fact that racism among Americans of color has been bred, born, and nurtured in a White supremacist power structure. Recognizing the fact that all people of color are oppressed by the White power structure IN NO WAY is a sort of downplaying of anti-Black racism or a call to ignore the social/economic/historic differences in our situations. I don’t think I’m being controversial when I say that (1)White racism has harmed all people of color (2) though the ways this harm has manifested itself in our communities has differed. It’s possible to acknowledge situated differences AND overall, systemic effects at the same time.

    Pointing this out (1) is not meant to absolve anyone of culpability for racism, but is/was meant to (again) raise the point that Asian racism against Black Americans is not Black American’s biggest problem, race-wise. Neither is Black racism against Asians. The LA riots were a perfect example of the divide-and-conquer strategy devised by White racism—get the minorities hating and mistrusting and destroying each other so they forget about who’s actually holding the boot to their throats.

    I make a point to acknowledge Asian racism against other non-Whites, but my post was specifically addressing a particular skeptical comment about whether Asians count as ‘Colored’ or not. (FYI: We do.) I’m pointing out the fact that many (black, brown, white, etc.) DON’T count us as oppressed due to circumstances that are mostly beyond our control and that the reasoning behind this stance is highly suspect. Telling Asians to clean up our act is one thing; flat-out denying our oppression is another.

    I mean, when has liberation ever been bought with denials and ignorance?

    I didn’t discuss Asian culpability in anti-Black and -Brown racism because my post wasn’t about Asian culpability in anti-Black and -Brown racism. It was about how potential allies among POC have tended to deny Asians our history and oppression in a way that reproduces similar White denials of the history and oppression of Blacks, Native Americans/Amerindians, and Latinos. Reread it and tell me where I say, “I’m here to discuss why Black and Brown people should absolve Asians of our racism against them.” It’s one thing to tell me I’m wrong, but it’s another to put words in my mouth before you do it.

     
  13. "Person of color" = someone discriminated against for their race/ethnicity on a systematic level by the white majority

    (Inspired by the commentary on this post)

    For the purposes of anti-racism struggles, that’s all you need to go by.

    Yes, the term, “colored” is not normally associated with Asian people these days, but it was definitely used to label people of Asian descent in this country in the past. We have been and still are the targets of White racism:


    Believing the fallacy that people of Asian descent are not authentically or legitimately ‘Colored’ or ‘People of Color’ is wrong because:

    1) It ignores the long history of racial discrimination and persecution of Asians in the U.S. (e.g. the Chinese Exclusion Acts, the Japanese-American internment during WWII, explicit campaigns to drive Asians out of the American West, the lynching of Asian Americans. (Which is something that is not commonly known due to the fact that many Asian and Mexican victims of mob violence in the 19th c. were classified as ‘White’ in official records*)

    2) It ignores the history of White European imperialism in Asian countries, which intersects with White racism against Asian immigrants in White-majority countries. I assure you that White imperialists certainly did not view Indians, Chinese, or Vietnamese as being anything other than ‘Colored’

    Imperial map of Asia, source of map

    European man receiving pedicure from South Asian servants

    White European man receiving a pedicure from South Asian servants

    3) It plays into the White racist divide-and-conquer strategy.

    Even a brief look at the history of race/ethnicity in U.S. law alone makes it apparent that a key aspect of White racism has been the classification of non-Whites according to (white-defined) categories.

    Those hailing from Asia (as well as the Middle East, the Caribbean, and Latin America) have been legally categorized in a myriad of ways—very occasionally as White, but more often as non-White (e.g. Ozawa v. United States, United States v. Thind). In general, Asians have occupied a strange ethno-racial limbo as ‘Other’ (e.g. the Census prior to 1870). As far as Whites were concerned, Asians might not have been ‘Negros’, but we certainly weren’t White either. Our otherness made us targets for discrimination and violence, and—because our right to citizenship has constantly come under attack—we’ve historically had as little recourse to the protection of the law as African Americans have.

    Massacre of the Chinese at Rock Springs, Wyoming

    Massacre of the Chinese at White Springs, Wyoming (source)

    Yes, Asian people have (somewhat more recently than you think) enjoyed certain perks due to our ethnicity/race compared to Black and AmerIndian people (e.g. ‘the model minority’). But that’s just a more recent aspect of the divide-and-conquer strategy, which the White hegemony has used to pit minorities against each other so as to distract us from the real problems facing our communities.

    And yes, some Asian people are complete racist dicks to those who aren’t Asian or White, but that’s internalized White racism. If you’ve been kicked and beaten by your master for years, then suddenly given a few scraps from his table, would you throw them in his face? Or is it more likely that—as beaten down as you are—you’d give in to Stockholm Syndrome and play along? (To be clear: that’s an explanation for Asian racism, not an excuse.)

    Even so, incidents of Anti-Asian bias (e.g. Vincent Chin, Wen Ho Lee) and straight-up racist violence occur frequently enough these days that Asians are hyper-aware of the fact that many—including non-whites—don’t view us as Americans, let alone ‘Colored’. We’re simply foreign ‘others’.

    So if White is grudgingly treating you OK, while Black and Brown seem to hate and distrust you, then whom do you ally yourself with? More importantly, who benefits from this apparent alliance?

    In the American black-white paradigm of race relations, ‘others’ like Asians get shit on no matter which side we’re on. So the Asian internalization of White racism makes a twisted kind of sense as a survival strategy, particularly if your natural allies (other victims of White racism) are treating you like foreigners and even equating you with the oppressor himself. 

    My point: Asians’ conflicted, sometimes tense, relations with African Americans and those who have been historically, categorically considered ‘Colored’ is an artifact of White racism. This means that if you exclude Asians from ‘Colored’ solidarity against White racism, you are reproducing a highly successful strategy of White racism.

    Let that sink in for a minute.

    To conclude: Anti-Asian exclusion from POC solidarity movements is ignorant, wrong, and just plain stupid. Asians’s current role as a prop of White racial supremacy is not our doing, just as our historic role as the foreign ‘Other’ is not our doing. The peculiar place of Asians in race relations today has been the result of the intersection of White racism, xenophobia, and imperialism. It is a mistake to think otherwise. 

    TL;DR: Questioning the identity of Asians as “people of color” reinforces White racial supremacy.

     
  14. image: Download

    
Members of the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) pose at  Camp Shanks, New York, before leaving from New York Port of Embarkation  on Feb. 2, 1945. The women are with the first contingent of Black  American WACs to go overseas for the war effort From left to right are,  kneeling: Pvt. Rose Stone; Pvt. Virginia Blake; and Pfc. Marie B.  Gillisspie. Second row: Pvt. Genevieve Marshall; T/5 Fanny L. Talbert;  and Cpl. Callie K. Smith. Third row: Pvt. Gladys Schuster Carter; T/4  Evelyn C. Martin; and Pfc. Theodora Palmer. (AP Photo)

    Members of the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) pose at Camp Shanks, New York, before leaving from New York Port of Embarkation on Feb. 2, 1945. The women are with the first contingent of Black American WACs to go overseas for the war effort From left to right are, kneeling: Pvt. Rose Stone; Pvt. Virginia Blake; and Pfc. Marie B. Gillisspie. Second row: Pvt. Genevieve Marshall; T/5 Fanny L. Talbert; and Cpl. Callie K. Smith. Third row: Pvt. Gladys Schuster Carter; T/4 Evelyn C. Martin; and Pfc. Theodora Palmer. (AP Photo)

     
  15. image: Download

    
Women of the defense corps form a “V” for victory  with crossed hose lines at a demonstration of their abilities in  Gloucester, Massachusetts, on November 14, 1941. (AP Photo)

    Women of the defense corps form a “V” for victory with crossed hose lines at a demonstration of their abilities in Gloucester, Massachusetts, on November 14, 1941. (AP Photo)